Dr. Wei-Kuo Tao

Senior Research Scientist, Civil Servant
Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory (Code 612)
Laboratory for Atmospheres
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771
Tel: (301) 614-6269
Email: Wei-Kuo.Tao-1@nasa.gov



  • B.S., Atmospheric Physics, National Central University, 1974.
  • M.S., Ph.D., Atmospheric Science, University of Illinois, 1978, 1983.
  • M.S., Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, 1987.



  • Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, since 1989.
  • Adjunct Professor, Department of Atmospheric Science, Texas A&M (2004 - )
  • Affiliate Faculty, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University (2000-2006, 2009-)
  • Adjunct Professor, Department of Atmospheric Physics, National Central University (2008 - )
  • Chair Professor, Department of Atmospheric Physics, National Central University (2011 - )
  • Lecturer, University of Maryland (2006, 2007, 2009)
  • Lecturer, Monash University - Australia (1989)
  • Senior Research Scientist, General Sciences Corporation, 1984-1989.
  • Research Associate, National Research Council/National Academy Science Postdoctoral Fellowship, 1982-1984.


Professional Society Memberships and Services

  • Chair, AGU Committee on Precipitation and Cloud, 2001- 2007.
  • Editor, J. Atmos. Sci., 2001 - 2003.
  • Editor, AMS Meteorological Monographs - Symposium on Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM, 2001.
  • Editor, Special issue on high-resolution modeling, Japan Meteorological Society of Japan, 2007.
  • NASA TRMM and Precipitation Measuring Mission Science Team, since 1991.
  • NASA MAP (Modeling Analysis and Prediction) Science Team, since 2005.
  • NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Science Team, since 2005.
  • DOE/ARM/ASR Science Team (2003 - )
  • Chair, NASA TRMM Latent Heating Committee (2004 - 2007)
  • Co-Chair, NASA PMM Weather/Climate User Working Group (2007 – )
  • Member of NASA GSFC Laboratory of Atmosphere Seminar Committee (2006 - )
  • Co-Chair, NASA Goddard “Cloud and Precipitation Processes” Cross-Cutting Science Theme (2006 - )
  • Co-Chair and Organizer, NASA GSFC & University of Maryland WRF workshop (2007)
  • Member, NASA GPM GV Advisory Panel (2005 - )
  • Member, NASA MAP06 Science Working Group (2006)
  • Chair, Committee for the NASA Goddard Earth Science Achievement Award (2004)
  • Member, NOAA NCEP/NCAR Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Science Board (2000- 2005)
  • Chair and Organizer, The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th TRMM Latent Heating Workshop (2001,2002, 2004, 2006, 2008)
  • Chair and Organizer, The 2nd NASA Cloud Modeling Workshop (2004)
  • Member of the Scientific Steering Committee for the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Group 4 (Precipitating Convective Cloud Systems) (1994 -2000)
  • Chair and Organizer, International Workshop on Cumulus Parameterization (2001)
  • American Meteorological Society Committee on Mesoscale Processes, 1996-1999.
  • Scientific Visitor Program, National Center for Atmospheric Research/MMM (1995)
  • Scientific Visitor Program, Joint Center for Mesoscale Meteorology (JCSS), University of Reading, UK (1994)


Honors and Awards:

  • NASA Goddard William Nordberg Award, 2008 (the highest Goddard award in the Earth Sciences)
  • Fellow, American Meteorological Society, 2001
  • Fellow, Royal Meteorological Society, 2000
  • Excellent Alumni Award, National Central University, 2006
  • NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, 2003 (NASA’s highest honor for a scientific achievement)
  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center – Earth Science Achievement Award (2nd recipient), 2003 (Goddard’s highest honor for a scientific achievement in Earth Science)
  • Excellent Alumni Award (one of 1st recipients), Department of Atmospheric Physics, National Central University, 2009
  • NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, 1992 (NASA’s highest honor for a scientific achievement)
  • NASA Group Achievement Award to CRYSTAL-FACE Science Team, 2003
  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Laboratory for Atmospheres - Scientific Research Award, 1993, 1996
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center – Performance Award, 1992-1997, 2000, 2002-2011
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center – Special Act Award, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2007, 2008
  • NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center –Quality Increase Award, 1994, 1996, 2007
  • Chinese Natural Science and Cultural Scholarship, Ministry of Education, 1973


Special Experience:

Has more than 35 years of experience in cloud physics and modeling mesoscale convective systems. Is the primary developer of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the leader of the Goddard Mesoscale Modeling and Dynamics Group (consists of 10 scientists). Has given more than 100 invited talks/visits to 30 different national (US) and international laboratories, universities and national and international conferences (AGU, EGU, AOES).


Graduate Adviser and Post-Doc Mentor:

S.-T. Soong, U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (M.S. and Ph. D.)
Joanne Simpson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center



Tao, W.-K., 1978: A numerical simulation of deep convection in the tropics. M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, 66 pp.
Tao, W.-K., 1983: A numerical study of the structure and vertical transport properties of a tropical convective system. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Illinois, 228 pp.


Advised Ph. D. Students:

ShuHwa Chen (Purdue University), Toshi Matsui (Colorado State University), Tom O.’Halloran (University of Virginia), Jiwen Fan (Texas A&M University), Marcia DeLonge (University of Virginia), Ildae Choi (Seoul National University), Nick Guy (Colorado State University), Yanni Ding (University of Maryland), Prabhakar Shrestha (Duke University), Young-Min Yang (Seoul National University).


Education and Out-Reach Activities:

The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model and its generated data sets have been used by several US Universities (Columbia University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Michigan, University of Maryland, University of New York at Albany, University of New York at Stony Brooke, Texas Austin College, Purdue University, Florida State University), National Laboratory (DOE Brokeheaven Lab) and International Research Centers (Joint Center for Mesoscale Meteorology at the University of Reading, UK; University of Leicester, UK, Monash University, Australia; Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, Seoul National University, Korea, National Central University, Taiwan).
Have provided Goddard water/ice microphysical and cloud-radiation schemes to Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storm - CAPS (one of seven Science and Technology centers established by the National Science Foundation in 1988). Have provided the Goddard Microphysics and Cloud-Radiation packages to the Penn State/NCAR MM5. Is currently implementing several Goddard Microphysics schemes, longwave and shortwave radiation and surface processes into the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model.


Publications [over 200, and 90 (35 as 1st author) since 2003]

More than 200 [90 (35 as 1st author) since 2003] in refereed literature, Encyclopedia, books and Monographs, and more than 120 conference presentations, on tropical cloud systems and modeling, applying the cloud resolving model to understand cloud-precipitation-aerosol interaction, -air-sea interaction, convective-stratiform interaction, cloud-radiation interaction, cloud-chemistry interaction, and cloud-large-scale environment interaction, developing the latent heating profile retrieval using satellite data.


1.         Soong, S.-T., and W.-K. Tao, 1980: Response of deep tropical clouds to mesoscale processes. J. Atmos. Sci. , 37, 2016-2036
2.         Soong, S.-T., and W.-K. Tao, 1984: A numerical study of the vertical transport of momentum in a tropical rainband. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1049-1061
3.         Tao, W.-K., and J. Simpson, 1984: Cloud interactions and merging: Numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 2901-2917
4.         Tao, W.-K., and S.-T. Soong, 1986: A study of the response of deep tropical clouds to mesoscale processes: Three-dimensional numerical experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 2653-2676Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, and S.-T. Soong, 1987: Statistical properties of a cloud ensemble: A numerical study. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 3175-3187.
5.         Garstang, M., J. Scala, S. Greco, R. Harriss, S. Beck, E. Browell, G. Sachse, G. Gregory, J. Simpson, W.-K. Tao and A. Torres, 1988: Trace gas exchanges and convective transports over the Amazonian rain forest, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1528-1550.
6.         Tao, W.-K., and J. Simpson, 1989: Modeling study of a tropical squall-type convective line. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 177-202.
7.         Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson and M. McCumber, 1989: An ice-water saturation adjustment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 231-235.
8.         Tao, W.-K., and J. Simpson, 1989: A further study of cumulus interaction and mergers: Three-dimensional simulations with trajectory analyses. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2974-3004.
9.         Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, S. Lang, M. McCumber, R. Adler and R. Penc, 1990: An algorithm to estimate the heating budget from vertical hydrometeor profiles. J. Appl. Meteor., 29, 1232-1244.
10.       Scala, J., M. Garstang, W.-K. Tao, K. Pickering, A. Thompson, J. Simpson, V. Kirchhoff, E. Browell, G. Sachse, A. Torres, G. Gregory, R. Rasmussen and M. Khalil, 1990: Cloud draft structure and trace gas transport, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 17015-17030.
11.       Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson and S.-T. Soong, 1991: Numerical simulation of a subtropical squall line over Taiwan Strait. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 2699-2723.
12.       Adler, R. F., H.-Y. Yeh, N. Prasad, W.-K. Tao and J. Simpson, 1991: Microwave rainfall simulations of a tropical convective system with a three-dimensional cloud model, J. Appl. Meteor., 30, 924-953.
13.       Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and M. Garstang, 1991: Photochemical ozone production in Tropical squall line convection during NASA/GTE/ABLE 2A, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3099-3114.
14.       Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, W.-K. Tao and T. Kucsera, 1991: Ozone production in the tropical upper troposphere as affected by deep convection, EOS, 72, (44), 102.
15.       McCumber, M., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, R. Penc, and S.-T. Soong, 1991: Comparison of ice-phase microphysical parameterization schemes using numerical simulations of convection. J. Appl. Meteor., 30, 987-1004.
16.       Pickering, K., E., A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 1992: Ozone production potential following convective redistribution of biomass emissions, J. Atmos. Chem., 14, 297-313.
17.       Pickering, K., E., J. Scala, A. M. Thompson, W.-K. Tao and J. Simpson, 1992: A regional estimate of convective transport of CO from biomass burning,", Geophys Res. Letters., 19, 289-292.
18.       Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, J. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson and J. Simpson, 1992: Free tropospheric ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection, J. Geophys Res., 97, 17985-18000.
19.       Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, C.-H. Sui, B. Ferrier, S. Lang, J. Scala, M.-D. Chou and K. Pickering, 1993: Heating, moisture and water budgets of tropical and midlatitude squall lines: Comparisons and sensitivity to longwave radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 673-690.
20.       Lau, K. M., C. H. Sui and W.-K. Tao, 1993: A preliminary study of the tropical water cycle and its sensitivity to surface warming, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 1313-1321.
21.       Tao, W.-K., and J. Simpson, 1993: The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model. Part I: Model description. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 4, 35-72.
22.       Simpson, J. and W.-K. Tao, 1993: The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model. Part II: Applications for studying cloud precipitating processes and for NASA TRMM. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 4, 73-116.
23.       Tao, W.-K., S. Lang, J. Simpson and R. Adler, 1993: Retrieval Algorithms for estimating the vertical profiles of latent heat release: Their applications for TRMM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 71, 685-700.
24.       Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, W.-K Tao and T. L. Kucsera, 1993: Upper tropospheric ozone production following mesoscale convection during STEP/EMEX, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 8737-8749.
25.       GEWEX Cloud System Science Team, 1993: The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 387-399.
26.       Sui, C.-H., K. M. Lau, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 1994: The tropical water and energy cycles in a cumulus ensemble model. Part I: Equilibrium climate, J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 711-728.
27.       Lau, K. M., C.-H. Sui, M.-D. Chou and W.-K. Tao, 1994: An inquiry into the cirrus-cloud thermostat effect for tropical sea Surface temperature, Geophys Res. Letters. 21,1157-1160.
28.       Greco, S., J. Scala, J. Halverson, H. L. Massie, Jr., W.-K. Tao, and M. Garstang, 1994: Amazon coastal squall lines. Part II: Heat and moisture transports, Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 623-635.
29.       Thompson, A. M., K. E. Pickering, R. R. Dickerson, W. G. Ellis, D. J. Jacob, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, D. P. McNamara and J. Simpson, 1994: Convective transport over the central United States and its role in the regional CO and Ozone budgets," J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18703-18711.
30.       Lau, K. M., C.-H. Sui, M.-D. Chou and W.-K. Tao, 1994: “Reply to the Comment on the paper, An enquiry into the cirrus-cloud thermostat effect for tropical sea surface temperature, by V. Ramanathan, W. D. Collins and B. Subasilar", Geophys Res. Letters, 21, 1187-1188.
31.       Tao, W.-K., J. Scala, B. Ferrier and J. Simpson, 1995: The effects of melting processes on the development of squall lines in the tropics and midlatitudes. J. Atmos. Sci . 52, 1934-1948.
32.       Prasad, N., H.-Y. M. Yeh, R. F. Adler and W.-K. Tao, 1995: Infrared and microwave simulations of an intense convective system and comparison with aircraft observations, J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 153-174.
33.       Yeh, H.-Y. M., N. Prasad, R. Meneghini, W.-K. Tao and R. F. Adler, 1995: Model-based simulation of TRMM spaceborne radar observations, J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 175-197.
34.       Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W.-K. Tao, A. M. Molod and R. B. Rood, 1995: Vertical transport by convective clouds: Comparisons between cloud-scale and global-scale model, Geophys Res. Letters, 22, 1089-1092.
35.       Ferrier, B. S., W.-K. Tao and J. Simpson, 1995: A double-moment multiple-phase four-class bulk ice scheme. Part II: Simulations of convective storms in different large-scale environments and comparisons with other bulk parameterizations, J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1001-1033.
36.       Wang, Y., W.-K. Tao, K. Pickering, A. Thompson, J. Kain, R. Adler, J. Simpson, P. Keehn and G. Lai, 1996: Mesoscale model (MM5) simulation of TRACE and PRESTORM Convective Systems and Associated Tracer Transport,. J. Geophys. Res., 101, D19, 24013-24027.
37.       Wang, Y., W.-K. Tao and J. Simpson, 1996: The impact of ocean surface fluxes on a TOGA COARE convective System, Mon. Wea. Rev. 124, 2100-2125.
38.       Simpson, J., C. Kummerow, W.-K. Tao and R. Adler, 1996: On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Meteor, and Atmos. Phys. 60, 19-36.
39.       Ferrier, B. S., J. Simpson and W.-K. Tao, 1996: Factors responsible for different precipitation efficiencies between midlatitude and tropical squall simulations. Mon. Wea. Rev.. 124, 2100-2125.
40.       Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, S. Lang, C.-H. Sui, B. Ferrier, and M.-D. Chou, 1996: Mechanisms of cloud-radiation interaction in the tropics and midlatitudes. J. Atmos. Sci . 53, 2624-2651.
41.       Pickering, K.E., , A. Thompson, Y. Wang, W.-K Tao, Bradshaw, Kirchhoff, Alvala, Gregory, Blake, McNamara, Kucsera, 1996: Convective transport of biomass burning emissions over Brazil during TRACE-A, J. Geophys. Res., 101, D19, 23993-24012.
42.       Stenchikov, G., R. Dickerson, K. Pickering, W. Ellis, B. Doddridge, S. Kondragunta, O. Pooulida, J. Scala and W.-K. Tao, 1996: Troposphere-stratosphere exchange in a midlatitude mesoscale convective complex: Part 2, Numerical simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 6823-6836.
43.       Halverson, J. B., M. Garstang, J. Scala and W.-K. Tao, 1996: Water and energy budgets of a Florida mesoscale convective system: A combined observational and modeling study, Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 1161-1180
44.       Ellis, W. G., A. M. Thompson, S. Kondragunta, K. Pickering, G. Stenchikov, R. Dickerson, and W.-K. Tao, 1996: Potential ozone production following convective transport based on future emission scenarios, Atmospheric Environment, 30, 667-672.
45.       Dharssi, I., R. Kershaw and W.-K. Tao, 1997: Sensitivity of a simulated tropical squall line to longwave radiation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 187-206.
46.       Thompson, A. M., W.-K. Tao, K. E. Pickering, J. R. Scala and J. Simpson, 1997: Tropical deep convection and Ozone formation, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 1043-1054.
47.       Kuo, Y.-H., J. Bresch, M.-D. Cheng, J. Kain, D. B. Parsons, W.-K. Tao and D.-L. Zhang, 1997: Summary of a mini-workshop on cumulus parameterization for mesoscale models, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 475-492.
48.       Moncrieff, M. W., S. K. Krueger, D. Gregory, J.-L. Redelsperger and W.-K. Tao, 1997: GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group 4: Precipitating convective cloud systems , Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 831-845.
49.       Chen, C., W.-K. Tao, P.-L. Lin, G. S. Lai, S.-F. Tseng and T.-C. Chen Wang, 1998: The interaction of the low-level jet during the development of mesoscale convective systems in a Mei-Yu front, Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 349-371.
50.       Lynn, B. H., W.-K. Tao and P. Wetzel, 1998: A study of landscape generated deep moist convection. Mon. Wea. Rev. 126, 928-942.
51.       Pickering, K. E., Y. Wang, W.-K Tao and C. Price,, 1998: The vertical distribution of lightning NOx for use in regional and global chemical transport models, J. Geophy. Res., V103, D23, 31203-31216.
52.       Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, C.-H. Sui, C.-L. Shie, B. Zhou, K. M. Lau, and, M. Moncrieff, 1999: On equilibrium states simulated by Cloud-Resolving Models. J. Atmos. Sci.   56, 3128-3139.
53.       Olson, W. S., C. D. Kummerow, Y. Hong, and W.-K. Tao, 1999: Atmospheric latent heating distributions in the Tropics derived from satellite passive microwave radiometer measurements, J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 633-644.
54.       Das, S., D. Johnson and W.-K. Tao, 1999: Single-column and cloud ensemble model simulations of TOGA COARE convective systems, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 77, 803-826.
55.       Redelsperger, J. L., P. R. A. Brown, F. Guichard, C. Hoff, M. Kawasima, S. Lang, Th. Montmerle, K. Nakamura, K. Saito, C. Seman, W.K. Tao and L. J. Donner, 2000: A GCSS model intercomparison for a tropical squall line observed during TOGA-COARE. Part 1: Cloud-Resolving Models." Q. J. R. Met. Soc., 126, 823-864.
56.       Tao, W.-K., R. Adler, S. Braun, F. Einaudi, B. Ferrier, J. Halverson, G. Heymsfield, C. Kummerow, A. Negri and R. Kakar, 2000: Summary of a Symposium on Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM: Celebration of Dr. Joanne Simpson's Career - The First 50 years, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 81, 2463-2474.
57.       Tao, W.-K., S. Lang, J. Simpson, W. S. Olson, D. Johnson, B. Ferrier, C. Kummerow and R. Adler, 2000: Vertical profiles of latent heat release and their retrieval in TOGA COARE convective systems using a cloud resolving model, SSM/I and radar data, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 78, 333-355.
58.       Braun, S. A., and W.-K. Tao, 2000: Sensitivity of high-resolution simulations of Hurricane Bob (1991): To planetary boundary layer parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3491-3961.
59.       Baker, R. D., B. H. Lynn, A. Boone, W.-K. Tao and J. Simpson, 2001: The influence of soil moisture, coastline curvature, and the land-breeze circulation on sea-breeze initiated precipitation, J. of Hydrometeorology, 2, 193-211.
60.       Lynn, B. H., W.-K. Tao and F. Abramopoulos, 2001: A parameterization for the triggering of landscape generated moist convection, Part I: Analyses of high resolution model results. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 575-592.
61.       Lynn, B. H. and W.-K. Tao, 2001: A parameterization for the triggering of landscape generated moist convection, Part II: Zero order and first order closure. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 593-607.
62.       Lynn, B. H., D. Stauffer, P. Wetzel, W.-K. Tao, P. Alpert, N. Perlin, R. D. Baker, R. Munoz, A. Boone, and Y. Jia, 2001: Improved simulation of Florida summer convection using the PLACE land surface model and a 1.5-order turbulence parameterization coupled to the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 1441-1461.
63.       Peng, L., C.-H. Sui, K.-M. Lau and W.-K. Tao, 2001: Genesis and evolution of super cloud clusters in a 2-d numerical cloud resolving model, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 877-895.
64.       Tao, W.-K., S. Lang, W. S. Olson, R. Meneghini, S. Yang, J. Simpson, C. Kummerow, E. Smith and J. Halverson, 2001: Retrieved vertical profiles of latent heat release using TRMM rainfall products for February 1998, J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 957-982.
65.       Tao, W.-K., C.-L. Shie and J. Simpson, 2001: Comments on "The sensitivity study of radiative-convective equilibrium in the Tropics with a convective resolving model, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 1328-1333.
66.       Olson, W. O., P. Bause, C. D. Kummerow, Y. Hong and W.-K. Tao, 2001: A melting layer model for passive/active microwave remote sensing applications - Part II: Simulation of TRMM observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 1164-1179.
67.       Pu, Z.-X. W.-K. Tao, Y. Jia, J. Simpson, S. Braun, J. Halverson, W. Olson and A. Hou, 2002: The impact of TRMM data on mesoscale numerical simulation of Super Typhoon Paka, Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2448-2458.
68.       Johnson, D., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and C.-H. Sui, 2002: A Study of the Response of Deep Tropical Clouds to Mesocale Processes, Part I: Modeling Strategy and Simulation of TOGA COARE Convective Systems, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3492-3518.
69.       Xu, K.-M., R. T. Cederwall, L. J. Donner, F. Guichard, W. W. Grabowski, D. E. Johnson, M. Khairoutdinov, S. K. Krueger, J. C. Petch, D. A. Randall, C. J. Seman, W.-K. Tao, S. Xie, J. Jio and M.-H. Zhang, 2002: Iintercomparison of cloud-resolving models with the ARM Summer 1997 IOP data, Q. J. R. Met. Soc., 128, 593-624.
70.       Zeng, X., Q. Zhang, D. Johnson and W.-K. Tao, 2002: Parameterization of wind gustiness for the computation of ocean surface fluxes at different spatial scales, Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2125-2133.
71.       Mohr, K. I., R. D. Baker, W.-K. Tao and J. S. Famiglietti, 2002: The sensitivity of west African convective lines water budgets to land cover, J. of Hydrometeorology, 4, 62-76.
72.       Jorgensen, D. P., Z.-X. Pu, O. Persson and W.-K. Tao, 2003: The structure of a Pacific narrow cold frontal rainband, Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 2705-2729.
73.       Wang, Y., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and S. Lang, 2003: The sensitivity of tropical squall lines (GATE and TOGA COARE) to surface fluxes: 3-D Cloud resolving model simulations, Q. J. R. Met. Soc., 129, 987-1007.
74.       Shie, C.-L., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson and C.-H. Sui, 2003: Quasi-equilibrium states in the tropics simulated by a cloud-resolving model. Part I: Specific features and budget analysis, J. of Climate, 5, 817-833.
75.       Lang, S., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and B. Ferrier, 2003: Modeling of convective-stratiform precipitation processes: Sensitivity to partitioning methods. J. Applied. Meteor., 42, 505-527.
76.       Shige, S., Y. N. Takayabu, W.-K. Tao and D. Johnson, 2003: Spectral retrieved of latent heating profiles from TRMM PR data. Part I: Algorithm development with a cloud resolving model. J. Applied Meteor. 43, 1095-1113.
77.       Tao, W.-K., Y. Wang, J. Qian, W. K.-M. Lau, C.-L. Shie and R. Kakar, 2003: Mesoscale Convective Systems during SCSMEX: Simulations with a Regional Climate Model and a Cloud-Resolving Model, Weather and climate Modeling, New Age International (P) Limited, Edited by S.V. Singh, S. Basu and T. N. Krishnamurti, 77-92.
78.       Tao, W.-K., C.-L. Shie, R. Johnson, S. Braun, J. Simpson, and P. E. Ciesielski, 2003: Convective Systems over South China Sea: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 2929-2956.
79.       Tao, W.-K., D. Starr, A. Hou, P. Newman, and Y. Sud, 2003: Summary of cumulus parameterization workshop. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 1055-1062.
80.       Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, D. Baker, S. Braun, M.-D. Chou, B. Ferrier, D. Johnson, A. Khain, S. Lang, B. Lynn, C.-L. Shie, D. Starr, C.-H. Sui, Y. Wang and P. Wetzel, 2003: Microphysics, radiation and surface processes in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model, A Special Issue on Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Modeling, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 82, 97-137. http://www.springerlink.com/content/44myc52xcmc3ajxv/fulltext.pdf
81.       Pu, Z., and W.-K. Tao, 2004: Mesoscale assimilation of TRMM rainfall data with 4DCAR: Sensitivity studies. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 1389-1397.
82.       Yoshizaki, M., T. Kato, H. Eito, S. Hayashi, and W.-K. Tao, 2004: An overview of the field experiment “Winter Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the Japan Sea 2001”, and comparisons of the cold-air outbreak case (14 January) between analysis and a non-hydrostatic cloud-resolving model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 1365-1384.
83.       Qian, J.-H., W.-K. Tao, and K.-M. Lau, 2004: Mechanisms of torrential rain associated with the Mei-yu development during SCSMEX-98, Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 3-27.
84.       Rajendran, R., T. N. Krishnamurti, V. Misra and W.-K. Tao, 2004: An empirical cumulus parameterization scheme for a global spectral model, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 989-1006.
85.       Tao, W.-K., D. Johnson, C.-L. Shie, and J. Simpson. 2004: Atmospheric energy budget and large-scale precipitation efficiency of convective systems during TOGA COARE, GATE, SCSMEX and ARM: Cloud-resolving model simulations, J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 2405-2423.
86.       Gao, S., F. Ping, X. Li and W.-K. Tao, 2004: A convective vorticity vector associated with tropical convection: A 2D cloud-resolving modeling study, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14106, doi:10.1029/2004JD004807.
87.       Chen, C. S., W.-C. Chen, and W.-K. Tao, 2004: A study of heavy summer rainfall over southwestern Taiwan, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 1521-1543
88.       Lang, S., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and B. Ferrier, 2004: Reply to ‘Comment on "Modeling of convective-stratiform precipitation processes: Sensitivity to partitioning methods" by M. Steiner’, J. Applied Meteor., 43, 962-965.
89.       Matsui, T., H. Masunaga, R. Pielke, Sr. and W.-K. Tao, 2004: Impact of aerosol and atmospheric thermodynamics on cloud properties within the climate system, Geophys. Res. Letters, 31, L06109, doi10.1029/2003GL01928.
90.       Houser, P. R., M. Bosilovich, C. Peters-Lidard and W.-K. Tao, 2004: Ultra-high resolution observation-driven land modeling needed to enable the development of global cloud resolving Earth system models. GEWEX News, 14, No. 3, 8-9.
91.       Li, X., C.-H. Sui, K.-M. Lau and W.-K. Tao, 2005: Tropical convective responses to microphysical and radiative processes: A sensitivity study with a 2D cloud resolving model, Meteor. Atmos. Physics, doi:10.1007/s00703-004-0088-5.
92.       Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao and J. Simpson, 2005: An equation for moist entropy in a precipitating and ice atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 4293-4309.
93.       Li, J.-L. D. E. Waliser, J. H. Jiang, D. L. Wu, W. Read, J. W. Waters, A. Tompkins, L. J. Donner, J. Chern, W.-K. Tao, R. Atlas, Y. Gu, K.L. Liou, A. DelGenio, M. Khairoutdinov, and A. Gettelman, 2005: Comparisons of EOS MLS Cloud Ice Measurements with ECMWF analyses and GCM Simulations: Initial Results. Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 32, No. 18, L18710, 10.1029/2005GL023788.
94.       Shie, C.-L., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and C.-L. Sui, 2005: A note on the relationship between temperature and water vapor over oceans, as well as se surface temperature impact. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 23, 141-148.
95.       Stenchikov, G., K. Pickering, A. Decaria, W.-K. Tao, J. Scala, L. Ott, D. Bartels and T. Matejka, 2005: Simulation of the fine structure of the July 12, 1996 STERAO storm accounting for effects of terrain and interaction with mesoscale flow. J. Geophy. Res., 110, D14304, doi:10.1029/2004JD005582.
96.       Gao, S., X. Cui, Y. Zhou, X. Li and W.-K. Tao, 2005: A modeling study of moist and dynamic vorticity vectors associated with two-dimensional tropical convection. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D17104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005675.
97.       Grabowski, W. W., P. Bechtold, A. Cheng, R. Forbes, G. Halliwell, M. Khairoutdinov, S. Lang, T. Nasuno, J. Petch, W.-K. Tao, R. Wong, X. Wu and K.-M. Xu, 2006: Daytime convective developments over land: An idealized model intercomparison case based on LBA observations, Q. J. Roy. Meteorl. Soc., 132, 317-344.
98.       Olson, W.-S., C. D. Kummerow,, S. Yang, G. W. Petty, W.-K. Tao, T. L. Bell, S. A. Braun, Y. Wang, S. E. Lang, D. E. Johnson and C. Chiu, 2006: Precipitation and latent heating distributions from satellite passive microwave radiometry Part I: Method and uncertainties. J. Applied Meteor., 45, 702-720.
99.       Tao, W.-K., E. Smith, R. Adler, Z. Haddad, A. Hou, T. Iguchi, R. Kakar, T.N. Krishnamurti, C. Kummerow, S. Lang, R. Meneghini, N. Nakamura, T. Nakazawa, K. Okamoto, W. Olson, S. Satoh, S. Shige, J. Simpson, Y. Takayabu, G. Tripoli, and S. Yang, 2006: Retrieval of latent heating from TRMM measurements, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 1555-1572.
100.    Matsui, T., H. Masunaga, R. A. Pielke, Sr., S. M. Kreidenweis, W.-K. Tao, M. Chin and Y. Kaufman, 2006: Satellite-based assessment of marine low cloud variability associated with aerosol, atmospheric stability and diurnal cycle. J. Geophy. Res., Aerosol and Clouds. 111, D17204, doi:10.1029/2005JD006097.
101.    Gao, S., X. Li, W.-K. Tao, C.-L. Shie and S. Lang, 2007: Convective moist vorticity vectors associated with tropical oceanic convection: A three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation. J. Geophy. Res., 112, D01105, doi:10.1029/2006JD007179.
102.    Alonge, C. J., K. I. Mohr, and W.-K. Tao, 2007: Numerical case studies of wet vs dry regimes in the West African Sahel, J. Hydrometeor. 8, 102-116.
103.    Seo, E.-K., G. Liu, W.-K. Tao, and S.-O. Han, 2007: Adaptation of model-generated cloud database to satellite observations, Geophy. Res. Lett., 34 , doi:10.1029/2006GL027857.
104.    Fan, J., R. Zhang, G. Li, W.-K. Tao, X. Li, 2007: Simulations of cumulus clouds using a spectral bin microphysics in a cloud resolving model. J. Geophy. Res. 112, D04201, doi:10.1029/2006JD007688.
105.    Lang, S., W.-K. Tao, R. Cifelli, W. Olson, J. Halverson, S. Rutledge, and J. Simpson, 2007: Improving simulations of convective system from TRMM LBA: Easterly and Westerly regimes. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 1141-1164.
106.    Johnson, D., W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 2007: A Study of the Response of Deep Tropical Clouds to Mesocale Processes, Part II: Sensitivity tests of radiation, surface fluxes and microphysics, J . Atmos. Sci., 64, 869-886.
107.    Pielke, R., SrD. Stokowski, J. W. Wang, T. Vukicevic, G. Leoncini, T. Matsui, C. L. Castro, D. Niyogi, C. M. Kishtawal, A. Biazar, K. Doty, R. T. McNider, U. Nair, W.-K. Tao, 2007: Development of generalized parameterization of diabatic heating for use in weather and climate models, EOS, 88(8), 96-97.
108.    Juang, H. M., W.-K. Tao, X. Zeng, C.-L. Shie and J. Simpson, 2007: Parallelization of a cloud-resolving model for massively parallel computing by using message passing interface, TAO, 18, 593-622.
109.    Shige, S., Y. N. Takayabu, W.-K. Tao and C.-L. Shie, 2007: Spectral retrieved of latent heating profiles from TRMM PR data. Part II: Algorithm improvement and its estimates over the tropical ocean regions. J. Applied Meteor. Climatology, 46, 1098-1124.
110.    Tao, W.-K., R. Houze, Jr., and E. Smith, 2007: Summary of the 4th TRMM Latent Heating Workshop, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 1255, 1259.
111.    Tao, W.-K., 2007: Cloud Resolving Modeling. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, Special Issue of 125th Anniversary of Japan Meteorology Society, 85, 305-330.
112.    Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang, S. Lang, C. Peters-Lidard, J. Simpson, S. Xie, S. Kumar, J. V. Geiger, C.-L. Shie, and J. L.. Eastman, 2007: Evaluation of long-term cloud-resolving modeling with observational cloud data. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 4153–4177.
113.    Zhou, Y., W.-K. Tao, A.Hou, C.-L. Shie, K. -M. Lau, M. -D. Chou, X. Lin, B. Olson, M. Grecu, 2007: Using High-Resolution Satellite Observations for Evaluation of Cloud and Precipitation Statistics from Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations. Part I: South China Sea Monsoon Experiment. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 4309-4329.
114.    Fan, J., R. Zhang, G. Li, and W.-K. Tao, 2007: Effects of aerosols and relative humidity on cumulus clouds, J. Geophy. Res., 112, D14204, doi:10.1029/2006JD008136.
115.    Tao, W.-K., X. Li, A. Khain, T. Matsui, S. Lang, and J. Simpson, 2007: The role of atmospheric aerosol concentration on deep convective precipitation: Cloud-resolving model simulations. J. Geophy. Res., 112, D24S18, doi:10.1029/2007JD008728.
116.    Kumar, S. V., C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. E. Eastman, W.-K. Tao, 2007: An integrated high resolution hydrometeorological modeling system using LIS and WRF, Environmental Modeling & Software, Vol 23/2, 169-181.
117.    Shige, S., Y. N. Takayabu, and W.-K. Tao, 2008: Spectral retrieved of latent heating profiles from TRMM PR data. Part III: Moistening estimates over the tropical ocean regions J. Applied Meteor. Climatology, 47, 620--640.
118.    Smith, E. A.,….W.-K. Tao, ….et al., 2007: International global precipitation measurement (GPM) program and mission: An overview, Advances in Global Change Research (Vol. 28), Springer, Dordrecht, NETHERLAND, 613-653.
119.    Fan, J., R. Zhang, W.-K. Tao, K. I. Mohr, 2008: Aerosol radiative effects on deep convective clouds and associated radiative forcing. J. Geophy. Res. 113, D08209, doi:10.1029/2007JD009257.
120.    Tao, W.-K., R. A. Houze, Jr., and E. A. Smith, 2008: Retrieved Latent Heating from TRMM, GEWEX Newsletter, Vol. 18, No. 2, 8-9.
121.    Tao, W.-K., D. Anderson, R. Atlas, J. Chern, A. Hou, S. Lang, W. Lau, C. Peters-Lidard, R. Kakar, S. Kumar, X. Li, T. Matsui, M. Rienecker, B.-W. Shen, J. J. Shi, J. Simpson, and X. Zeng, 2008: Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Systems with Unified Physics, GEWEX Newsletter Vol. 18, No. 1, 6-8.
122.    Li, J.-L. F., D. Waliser, C. Wood, J. Teixeira, J. Bacmeister, J. Chern, B.-W. Shen, A. Tompkins, W.-K. Tao, and M. Kohler, 2008: Comparisons of satellite liquid water estimates to ECMWF and GMAO analyses, 20th century IPCC AR4 climate simulations, and GCM simulations. Geophy. Res. Lett. 35, L19710, doi:10.1029/2088GL035427.
123.    Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, S. Lang, A. Hou, M. Zhang, and J. Simpson, 2008: On the sensitivity of Atmospheric ensemble to cloud microphysics in long-term cloud-resolving model simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, Special Issue on high-resolution cloud models, 86A, 45-65.
124.    Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao and J. Simpson, 2008: Microphysical timescales in clouds and their application in cloud-resolving model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 86, No. 6, 839-856.
125.    Norris, P. M., L. Oreopooulos, A. Hou, W.-K. Tao, and X. Zeng, 2008: Clouds andcopulas: Part I: Theory for water clouds, Q. J. Roy. Meteorl. Soc., 134, 1843-1864.
126.    Guo, H., Y. Liu, P. H. Daum and W.-K. Tao, 2008: Characteristics of vertical velocity in marine stratocumulus: Comparison of LES simulations with observations. Environ. Res. Lett. 3, 045020, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045020.
127.    Guo, H., Y. Liu, P. H. Daum, X. Zeng, X. Li and W.-K. Tao, 2008: Effects of model resolutions on entrainment (inversion heights), cloud-radiation interactions, and cloud radiative forcing. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8, 20399–20425.
128.    Li, X., W.-K. Tao, A. Khain, J. Simpson and D. Johnson, 2009: Sensitivity of a cloud-resolving model to bulk and explicit-bin microphysics schemes: Part I: Comparisons. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 3-21.
129.    Li, X., W.-K. Tao, A. Khain, J. Simpson and D. Johnson, 2009: Sensitivity of a cloud-resolving model to bulk and explicit-bin microphysics schemes:: Part II: Cloud microphysics and storm dynamics interactions. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 22-40.
130.    Tao, W.-K., J. Chern, R. Atlas, D. Randall, X. Lin, M. Khairoutdinov, J._L. Li, D. E. Waliser, A. Hou, C. Peters-Lidard, W. Lau, and J. Simpson, 2009: Multi-scale modeling system: Development, applications and critical issues, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 90, 515-534.
131.    Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang, A. Y. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. Li, D. Starr, X. Li, and J. Simpson, 2009: The indirect effect of ice nuclei on atmospheric radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 41-61.
132.    Wang, D., X. Li, W.-K. Tao, Y. Liu and H. Zhou, 2009: Torrential rainfall processes associated with a landfall of severe tropical storm Bills (2006): A cloud-resolving modeling study. Atmos. Res., 91, 94-104.
133.    Wang D., X. Li, and W.–K. Tao, et al., 2009: Effects of vertical wind shear on convective development during a landfall of severe tropical storm Bilis (2006), Atmos. Res., 94, 270-275.
134.    Matsui, T., X. Zeng, W.-K. Tao, H. Masunaga, W. S. Olson, and S. Lang, 2009: Evaluation of long-term cloud-resolving model simulations using satellite radiance observations and multi-frequency satellite simulators. J. Atmos. Oce. Tech. 26, 1261-1274.
135.    Waliser, D., F. Li, C. Woods, J. Bacmeister, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J. Jiang, M. Kharitondov, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. Platnik, W. B. Rossow, G. Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W.-K. Tao, A. Tommpkins, D. Vane, C. Walker and D. Wu, 2009: Cloud ice: A climate model challenge woth signs and expectations of progress. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00A21, doi:10.1029/2008JD010015.
136.    Jiang, X., D. Waliser, J.-L. Li, B. Tian, W. Olson, M. Grecu, W.-K. Tao, S. Lang, A. Tompkins, and T. L’Ecuyer, 2009: Characterizing the vertical heating structure of the MJO using TRMM. J. Climate, 22, 6001-6020.
137.    Tao, W.-K., D. Anderson, J. Chern, J. Estin, A. Hou, P. Houser, R. Kakar, S. Lang, W. Lau, C. Peters-Lidard, X. Li, T. Matsui, B.-W. Shen, J.-J. Shi, and X. Zeng, 2009: Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Systems with Unified Physics, Annales Geophysics, 27, 3055-3064.
138.    Grecu, M. W. Olson, C.-L. Shie, T. L’Ecuyer, and W.-K. Tao, 2009: Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Latent Heating Profiles. J. Climate, 22, 6356-6376.
139.    Shige, S., Y. N. Takayabu, S. Kida, W.-K. Tao, X. Zeng and T. L’Ecuyer, 2009: Spectral retrieved of latent heating profiles from TRMM PR data. Part VI: Comparisons of lookup tables from two- and three-dimensional simulations. J. Climate, 22, 5577-5594.
140.    Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M.-H. Zhang, A. Y. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. Li, D. O’C Starr and X. Li, 2009:A contribution by ice nuclei to global warming. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 1614-1629.
141.    Santanello, J. A. Jr, C. D. Peters-Lidard, S. V. Kummar, C. Alonge, and W.-K. Tao, 2009: A modeling and observational framework for diagnosing local land-atmosphere coupling on diurnal time scales. J. of Hydrometeo, 10, 577-599.
142.    Lee, M.-I., I. Choi, W.-K. Tao, S. D. Schubert, and I.-K. Kang, 2010: Mechanisms of diurnal precipitation over the United States Great Plains: A cloud-resolving model simulation. Climate Dynamic, 34, 419-437.
143.    Shen, B.-W. and W.-K. Tao, W. K.-K. Lau, R. Atlas, 2010: Predicting the Formation of Tropical Cyclone Nargis (2008) with a High-resolution Global Model. Geophys. Res. Letters, doi:10.1029/2009JD013140.
144.    Shen, B.-W. W.-K. Tao, and M.-L. C. Wu, 2010: African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study during the 2006 NAMMA Period. Geophys. Res. Lett., L18803, doi:10.1029/2010GL044355.
145.    Hagos, S. C. Zhang, W.-K. Tao, S. Lang, Y. Takayabu, S. Shige, and M. Katsumata. 2010: Latent Heating Profiles over the Tropics: Estimates and Uncertainties. J. Climate 23, 542-558.
146.    Tao, W.-K., S. Lang, X. Zeng, S. Shige, Y. Takayabu, 2010: Relating convective and stratiform rain to latent heating, J. Climate, 23, 1874-1893. 
147.    Wang D., X. Li, and W.–K. Tao, 2010: Responses of vertical structures in convective and stratiform regions to large-scale forcing during the landfall of severe tropical storm Bilis (2006), Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 27, No.1, 1-14.
148.    Shi, J. J., W.-K. Tao, T. Matsui, A. Hou, S. Lang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Jackson, R. Cifelli, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen, 2010: Microphysical Properties of the January 20-22 2007 Snow Events over Canada: Comparison with in-situ and Satellite Observations. J. Applied Meteor. Climatol. 49, 2246-2266.
149.    Takayabu, Y. N., S. Shige, W.-K. Tao and N. Hirota, 2010: Shallow and deep latent heating modes over tropical oceans observed with TRMM PR spectral latent heating data. J. Climate, 23, 2030-2046.
150.    Li, X., W.-K. Tao, T. Matsui, C. Liu and H. Masunaga, 2010: Improving spectral bin microphysical scheme using TRMM satellite observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 136, 382–399.
151.    Ott, L. E., K. E. Pickering, G. L. Stenchikov, D. J. Allen, A. J. DeCaria, B. Rodley, R.-F. Lin, S. Lang and W.-K. Tao, 2010: Production of lightning NOx and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D04301, doi:10.1029/2009JD011880.
152.    Matsui, T., D. Mocko, M.-I. Lee, J. Chern and W.-K. Tao, 2010: Ten-year climatology of summertime diurnal rainfall rate over the Conterminous U.S., Geophy. Res. Letter, Vol. 37, L13807, doi:10.1029/2010GL044139.
153.    Wang, D., X. Li, W.-K Tao, 2010: Cloud radiative effects on responses of rainfall to large-scale forcing during a landfall of severe tropical storm Bilis (2006). Atmos. Res., doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.08.020.
154.    Wang, D., X. Li, W.-K Tao, 2010: Torrential rainfall responses to radiative and microphysical processes of ice clouds during a landfall of severe tropical storm Bilis (2006). Meteorol Atmos Phys., doi 10.1007/s00703-010-0097-5.
155.    Masunaga, H., Matsui, T., W.-K. Tao, A. Y. Hou, C. Kummerow, T. Nakajima, P. Bauer, W. Olson, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Y. Nakajima, 2010: Satellite Data Simulation Unit: Multi-Sensor and Multi–Frequency Satellite Simulator package, Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, 91, 1625-1632.
156.    Zhang, C., S. Hagos, W.-K. Tao, S. Lang, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Shige, M. Katsumata, W. S. Olson, and T. L’Ecuyer, 2010: MJO signals in latent heating: TRMM observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 3488-3508.
157.    Tao, W.-K., J. J. Shi, S. S. Chen, S. Lang, P.-L. Lin, S.-Y. Hong, C. Perters-Lidard and A. Hou, 2010: The impact of microphysics on intensity and track of hurricane. Special Issue on MCSs and High-Impact Weather/Climate in East Asia, Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (APJAS), 47, 1-16.
158.    Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, T. Matsui, S. Xie, S. Lang, M. Zhang, D. Starr, and X. Li, 2010: Estimating the Ice Crystal Enhancement Factor in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 1424-1434.
159.    Li, J.-L. F., J. Teixeira, D. E. Waliser, C. Woods, D. G. Vane, J. Bacmeister, J. –D. Chern, W.-K. Tao, A. M. Tompkins, 2011: A comparison of cloud vertical structure between CloudSat, the ECMWF analysis and two climate prediction models along the GPCI transect over the Northeastern Pacific, Geophys. Res. Letters, (submitted).
160.    Chen, W.-T., C. P. Woods, J.-L. F. Li, D. E. Waliser, J.-D. Chern, W.-K. Tao, J. H. Jiang, and A. M. Tompkins, 2011: Partitioning CloudSat ice water content for comparison with upper tropospheric ice in global atmospheric models, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D19206, doi:10.1029/2010JD015179.
161.    Shen, B.-W., Wei-Kuo Tao, Bryan Green, 2011: Coupling Advanced Modeling and Visualization to Improve High-Impact Tropical Weather Prediction, Computing in Science and Engineering, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 56-67, Sep./Oct. 2011, doi:10.1109/MCSE.2010.141
162.    Iguchi, T., T. Nakajima, A. P. Khain, K. Saito, T. Takemura, H. Okamoto, T. Nishizawa, and W.-K. Tao, 2011: Evaluation of cloud microphysics simulated using a meso-scale model coupled with a spectral bin microphysical scheme through comparison with observation data by ship-borne Doppler and space-borne W-band radars, J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 2566-2586, DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-11-0213.1.
163.    Jiang, X., D. E. Waliser, W. S. Olson, W.-K. Tao, T. S. L’Ecuyer, S. Shige, K.-F. Li, Y. L. Yung, and S. Lang, 2011: Vertical diabatic heating structure of the MJO: Inter-comparison between recent reanalyses and TRMM estimates, Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 3208–3223.
164.    Lang, S., W.-K. Tao and X. Zeng, 2011: Reducing the biases in simulated radar reflectivities from a bulk microphysics scheme: Tropical convective systems, J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 2306-2320.
165.    Tao, W.-K., J. J. Shi, P.-L. Lin, M.-Y. Chang, M.-J. Yang, C. Peter-Liddard, C.-H. Sui, 2011: High Resolution Numerical Simulation of Typhoon Morakot: Part I: Impact of Microphysics and PBL. Special Issue on Typhoon Morakot, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 6, 673-696. doi.10.3319/TAO2011.08.26.01™.
166.    Mohr, K. I., W.-K. Tao, J. Chern, S. V. Kumar, and C.Peters-Lidard, 2013: The NASA-Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework-Land Information System: Global land/atmosphere interaction with resolved convection. Environmental Modeling & Software, 39, 103-115, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031.
167.    Tao, W.-K., D. Wu, T. Matsui, S. Lang, C. Peters-Lidard, A. Hou, M. Rienecker, W. Petersen and M. Jessen, 2013: The Diurnal Variation of Precipitation: A numerical modeling study, J. Geophys. Res., (in press).
168.    Tapiador, F. J., W.-K. Tao, R. Shi, C. F. Angelis, M. A. Martinez, C, Marcos, A. Rodriguez, and A. Hou, 2012: Comparison of cloud microphysics, land-surface physics and cumulus parameterizations in a severe weather episode in Spain. J. Applied Meteor. Climato., 51, 489-504.
169.    Shen, B.-W., W.-K. Tao, Y.-L. Lin, and A. Laing, 2012: Genesis of Twin Tropical Cyclones as Revealed by a Global Mesoscale Model: The Role of Mixed Rossby Gravity Waves. J. Geophys. Res. 117, D13114, doi:10.1029/2012JD017450.
170.    Shen, B.-W., W.-K. Tao, Y.-L. Lin, and A. Laing, 2012a-1: Correction to :"Genesis of twin tropical cyclones as revealed by a global mesoscale model: The role of mixed Rossby gravity waves" J. Geophys. Res., 117, D16199, doi:10.1029/2012JD018598.
171.    Shen, B.-W., B. Nelson, S. Cheung, W.-K. Tao, 2012: Scalability Improvement of the NASA Multiscale Modeling Framework for Tropical Cyclone Climate Study. Computing in Science and Engineering, IEEE Computer Society Digital Library. IEEE Computer Society, <http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MCSE.2012.90> (in press, to appear in June 2013)
172.    Shen, B.-W., B. Nelson, W.-K. Tao, and Y.-L. Lin, 2013: Advanced Visualizations of Scale Interactions of Tropical Cyclone Formation and Tropical Waves. Computing in Science and Engineering, IEEE computer Society Digital Library. IEEE Computer Society, http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MCSE.2012.64 http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/cs/preprint/mcs2012990126-abs.html (in press, to appear in May 2013)
173.    Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, S. Powell, R. Houze, Jr., P. Ciesielski, N. Guy, H. Pierce and T. Matsui, 2013: Comparison of Water Budget between AMMA and TWP-ICE Clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 487-503.
174.    Nick Guy, X. Zeng, S. A. Rutledge, and W.-K. Tao, 2012: Goddard cumulus ensemble model performance on Sahelian mesoscale convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., (in press).
175.    Shi, J. J., T. Matsui, W.-K. Tao, C. Peters-Lidard, M. Chin, Q. Tan, K. Pickering, and E. Kemp., 2013: Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., Accepted manuscript online: 31 OCT 2013 10:18AM EST | DOI: 10.1002/qj.2286.
176.    Iguchi, T., T.Matsui, J.-J. Shi, W.-K. Tao, A. P. Khain, A. Hou, R. Cifelli, A. Heymsfield, and A. Tokay, 2012:Numerical analysis using WRF-SBM for the cloud microphysical structures of the two distinct snowfall events during the C3VP field campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D23206, doi:10.1029/2012JD018101.
177.    Matsui, T, J.-J. Shi, D. Wu, Q. Tan, J. Santanero, E. Kemp, W.-K. Tao, Mian Chin, and C. Peters-Lidard, 2012: Introducing Satellite Radiance-based Atmospheric Model Evaluation Using the NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with the Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit, J. Geophys. Res., (submitted).
178.    Matsui, T., T. Iguchi, X.Li, M. Han, W.-K. Tao, W. Petersen, T. LeCuyer, A. Hou, M. Schwaller, E. Stocker, 2013: GPM satellite simulator upon Ground Validation sites, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 1653–1660. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00160.1.
179.    Wu, D., X. Dong, B. Xi, Z. Feng, A. Kennedy, G. Mullendore, M. Gilmore, and W.-K. Tao, 2013: The Impact of Various WRF Single-Moment Microphysics Parameterizations on Squall Line Precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50798. https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/13166966/JGRD50798.pdf.
180.    Iguchi, T., T. Matsui, A. Tokay, P. Kollias, and W.-K. Tao, 2012: Two distinct modes in one-day rainfall event during MC3E field campaign: Analysis of disdrometer observations and WRF-SBM simulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L24805, doi:10.1029/2012GL053329.
181.    Li, X., W.-K. Tao, H. Masunaga, G. Gu, and X. Zeng, 2013: Aerosol Effects on Cumulus Congestus Population over the Tropical Pacific: A Cloud-Resolving Modeling Study. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 91(6), xx-xx. http://dx.doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2013-607
182.    Nicholls, S. D., S. G. Decker, W.-K. Tao, S.E. Lang, J.J. Shi, and K.I. Mohr, 2013: Influence of microphysics schemes upon WRF 3.3 simulations of Nor'easters, Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 582-601.
183.    Tao, W.-K., S. Lang, X. Zeng, X. Li, T. Matsui, K. Mohr, D. Posselt, J. Chern, P. Norris, I.-S. Kang, A. Hou, K.-M. Lau, I. Choi, and M. Yang, 2013: The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Improvements and Applications for Studying Precipitation Processes. An invited paper - Atmos. Res., (submitted).
184.    O’Halloran,T. L., J. D. Fuentes, W.-K. Tao, and X. Li, 2013: Sensitivity of convection to observed variation in aerosol size and composition at a rural site in the southeastern United States, J. Atmos. Chem. (accepted).
185.    Iguchi, T., T. Matsui, W.-K. Tao, A. Khain, V. T. J. Phillips, C. Kidd, T. L’Ecuyer, S. A. Braun, A. Hou, and M. R. Schwaller, 2013: Numerical simulations using WRF-SBM for mixed-phase precipitation and consequent bright band structure observed in the LPVEx field campaign, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., (submitted).
186.    Lang, S., W.-K. Tao, J.-D. Chern, D. Wu, and X. Li, 2013: Benefits of a 4th ice class in the simulated radar reflectivities of convective systems using a bulk microphysics scheme, J. Atmos. Sci.,(accepted).
187.    Lee, S.-S., and W.-K. Tao, 2013: Aerosol effects on instability, circulations, clouds and precipitation. Advances in Meteorology (in press).



1.     Adler, R., N. Prasad, W.-K. Tao, H.-Y. Yeh, R. Mack and J. Simpson, 1988: Microwave observations and modeling of deep convection, In Tropical Rainfall Measurements, A. Deepak Publishing, 185-191.
2.     Tao, W.-K., and J. Simpson, 1988: Precipitation statistics using model output, WMO/WCRP-1, Validation of Satellite Precipitation Measurements for the global Precipitation Climatology Project, Ed. J. C. Wilkerson, 217-226.
3.     Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao and J. Simpson, 1994: Enhancement of free tropospheric ozone production by deep convection, Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, Ed. R. D. Hudson, 105-108.
4.     Tao, W.-K., 1995: Interaction of parameterized convection and explicit stratiform cloud microphysics, WMO/WCRP-90, Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in Global Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Ed. D. Randall, 199-210.
5.     Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson and B. Ferrier, 1997: Cloud Resolving Model Simulations of Mesoscale Convective Systems, New Insights and Approaches to Convective Parameterization , Ed. D. Gregory, 77-112.
6.     Tao, W.-K., Y. Jia, C.-H. Sui and C. Chen "The diurnal cycle in TOGA-COARE: 1998: Regional scale model simulations, WMO/Would Climate Research Program-107, COARE 98, Ed. F. Bradley and R. Lukas, 321-322.
7.     Tao, W.-K., D. Johnson and J. Simpson, 1998: Tropical oceanic precipitation processes over the warm pool: 2D and 3D cloud resolving model simulations. WMO/Would Climate Research Program-107, COARE 98, Ed. F. Bradley and R. Lukas, 197-198.
8.     Johnson, D., W.-K. Tao, C-H. Sui and J. Simpson, 1998: A study of the response of deep tropical clouds to large-scale processes. WMO/Would Climate Research Program-107, COARE 98, Ed. F. Bradley and R. Lukas, 407-408.
9.     Moncrieff, M. W., and W.-K. Tao, 1999: Cloud-resolving models, Global Water and Energy Cycles, Ed. by K. Browing and R. J. Gurney, Cambridge University Press, 200-209.
10.   Redelsperger, J., L., S. Chen, R. H. Johnson, M. A. LeMone, T. Nakazawa, D. B. Parsons, S. A. Rutledege, W.-K. Tao and M. Yanai, 2000: Review of convection in TOGA COARE, World Meteorology Organization Monograph, WCRP-107, 16-42.
11.   Tao, W.-K., 2003: Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model: Application for understanding precipitation processes, AMS Meteorological Monographs - Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM. 107-138.
12.   Tao, W.-K., J. Halverson, R. Adler, M. Garstang, R. Houze, Jr., M. LeMone, R. Pielke and W. Woodley, 2003: The Research of Dr. Joanne Simpson: Fifty Years Investigating Hurricanes, Tropical Clouds and Cloud Systems" AMS Meteorological Monographs - Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM. 1-16.
13.   Tao, W.-K., and M. Moncrieff, 2003: Cloud Modeling, Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Edited by J. Holton, J. Curry and J. Pyle, 539-548.
14.   Tao, W.-K., Y. Wang, J. Qian, W. K.-M. Lau, C.-L. Shie and R. Kakar, 2003: Mesoscale Convective Systems during SCSMEX: Simulations with a Regional Climate Model and a Cloud-Resolving Model, Weather and climate Modeling, New Age International (P) Limited, Edited by S.V. Singh, S. Basu and T. N. Krishnamurti, 77-92.
15.   Tao, W.-K., R. Adler, D. Baker, S. Braun, M.-D. Chou, M. F. Jasinski, Y. Jia, R. Kakar, M. Karyampudi, W. K.-M. Lau, B. Lynn, Z.-X. Pu, M. Shepherd, C.-L. Shie, D. Starr, Y. Wang, W. Weinman and P. Wetzel, 2003: Regional Scale Modeling at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Recent Research Developments in Atmospheric Science, Research Signpost, 2, 1-52.
16.   Tao, W.-K., S. Lang, W. Olson, S. Satoh, S. Shige, Y. Takayabu, and S. Yang, 2004: Heating structure derived from TRMM, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Earth Observation Research and Application Center, 18-40.
17.   Shen, B.-W., R. Atlas, W.-K. Tao, T. Lee, O. Reale, J.-D. Chern, S.-J. Lin, J. Chang, C. Henze, J.-L. Li, 2006: Experimental High-Resolution Weather/Hurricane Predictions with the NASA fvGCM. High-End Computing at NASA, 48-49.
18.   Tao, W.-K., and A. Hou, 2006: Applications, evaluation, and improvement of multi-scale modeling systems, High-end computing at NASA, 40-41.
19.   Sui, C.-H., X. Li, K.-M. Lau, W.-K. Tao, M.-D. Chou and M.-J. Yang, 2008: Convective-radiative-mixing processes in the Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere. Recent Progress in Atmospheric Sciences with Applications to the Asia-Pacific Region, World Scientific Publication 66-88.
20.   Quaas, J., S. Bony, W. Collins, L. Donner, A. Illingworth, A. Jones, U. Lohmann, M. Satoh, S. E. Schwartz, W.-K. Tao, and R. Wood, 2008: Current Understanding and Quantification of Clouds in the Changing Climate System and Strategies for Reducing Critical Uncertainties, MIT book. Chapter 24, 557-573.

21. Tao, W.-K., and M. Moncrieff, 2009: Multi-scale cloud-system modeling. Rev. Geophys., 47, RG4002, doi:10.1029/2008RG000276. 
22.   Tao, W.-K., J. J. Shi, T. Matsui, A. Hou, S. Lang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, W. Petersen, R. Cifelli, and S. Rutledge, 2009: The 20-22 January 2007 Snow Events over Canada: Microphysical Properties, Proceeding of the International Precipitation Group Workshop, 340-349.
23.   Tao, W.-K., J.-P. Chen, Z.-Q. Li, C. Wang and C.-D. Zhang, 2012: The Impact of Aerosol on convective cloud and precipitation. Rev. Geophys., doi:10.1029/2011RG000369. 
24.   Tao, W.-K., and M. Moncrieff, 2013: Cloud Modeling, 2nd Edition, Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Edited by G. North, F. Zhang and J. Pyle, (in press early 2014).
25.   Tao, W.-K., and Toshi Matsui, 2013: Cloud System Modeling and Aerosol, 2nd Edition, Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Edited by G. North, F. Zhang and J. Pyle, (in press early 2014).
26.   Tao, W.-K., Y. N.Takayabu, S. Lang, W. Olson, S. Shige, A.Hou, X. Jiang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, C. Zhang, R. Johnson, R. Houze, P. Ciesielski, M. Grecu, S. Hagos, R. Kakar, N. Nakamura, S. Braun, and A. Bhardwaj, 2013: TRMM Latent Heating Retrieval and Comparison with Field Campaigns and Large-ScaleAnalyses, AMS Meteorological Monographs - Multi-scale Convection-Coupled Systems in the Tropics (accepted).